18. Learner autonomy – Critical voices

Selected chapters including Benson and Pennycook in:

Benson, P., & Voller, P. (Eds.). (1996). Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning (1st ed.). London: Longman.

Illés, E. (2012). Learner autonomy revisited. ELT Journal, 66(4), 505 – 513.

Littlewood, W. (1999). Defining and Developing Autonomy in East Asian Contexts. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 71-94.

Spratt, M., Humphreys, G. & Chan, V.  (2002). Autonomy and motivation: which comes first? Language Teaching Research, 6, 245-66.

Waters, A. (1998) Managing Monkeys in the ELT Classroom. ELT Journal, 52/1, 11-18.

Richard Smith’s Key Concept in ELT Journal

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